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Global Strain Rate Map Project:  Data
International Lithosphere Program         SUNY Stony Brook         Global Strain Rate Map Project

Please give proper credit to results

Three different types of data have been used in obtaining a global strain rate model: geodetic velocities, Quaternary fault slip rates, and the style and direction of seismic moment tensors.


At 4281 geodetic sites, a total of 5170 horizontal velocities are used, taken from 86 different (mainly) published studies. All studies use Global Positioning System (GPS) techniques (i.e. no VLBI or DORIS studies). Implicit in our procedure is the assumption that a single rigid body rotation can be applied to the velocity vectors from each individual study (one rotation vector for each study) such that the model velocity field provides a 'best-fit' to the observed vectors that have been rotated into a single model frame of reference. Data files: The rotated geodetic velocity vectors and the angular velocity vectors that have been solved for to rotate the velocity vectors can be found in the Model Results.


Quaternary fault slip rate data are incorporated for the central Asia region [England and Molnar, 1997; Holt et al., 2000, and references therein]. Using Kostrov's summation slip rates are converted in geologic strain rates. Data files:


Shallow earthquakes (less or eaqual to 40 km) between 1 January 1976 and 31 December 2003 (inclusive) are taken from the Harvard Centroid Moment Tensors (CMT) catalog. See seismic data [1.5 Mb] (all events and their moment tensors) and seismic data format of the data file. In the model, seismic moment tensors are converted into seismic strain rate tensors using Kostrov's summation. The interpolated seismic strain rate field, in turn, is used to place a priori constraints on the style and direction of the model strain rate field obtained from the intepolation of geodetic velocities and geologic strain rates observations. Data files:

Geodetic References: Currently Used

Abdrakhmatov, K.Ye., S.A. Aldazhanov, B.H. Hager, M.W. Hamburger, T.A. Herring, K.B. Kalabaev, V.I. Makarov, P. Molnar, S.V. Panasyuk, M.T. Prilepin, R.E. Reilinger, I.S. Sadybakasov, B.J. Souter, Yu.A. Trapeznikov, V.Ye. Tsurkov, and A.V. Zubovich, Relatively recent construction of the Tien Shan inferred from GPS measurements of present-day crustal deformation rates, Nature, 384, 450-453, 1996.

Altiner, Y., The contribution of GPS data to the detection of the Earth's crust deformations illustrated by GPS campaigns in the Adria region, Geophys. J. Int., 145, 550-559, 2001.

Angermann, D., J. Klotz, and C. Reigber, Space-geodetic estimation of the Nazca-South America Euler vector, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 171, 329-334, 1999.

Antonelis, K., D.J. Johnson, M.M. Miller, and R. Palmer, GPS determination of current Pacific-North America plate motion, Geology, 27, 299-302, 1999.

Avé Lallemant, H.G., and J.S. Oldow, Active displacement partitioning and arc-parallel extension of the Aleutian volcanic arc based on Global Positioning System geodesy and kinematic analysis, Geology, 28, 739-742, 2000.

Ayhan, M.E., C. Demir, O. Lenk, A. Kilicoglu, Y. Altiner, A.A. Barka, S. Ergintav, and H. Ozener, Interseismic strain accumulation in the Marmara Sea region, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 92, 216-229, 2002.

Banerjee, P., and R. Bürgmann, Convergence across the northwest Himalaya from GPS measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, doi:10.1029/2002GL015184, 2002.

Beavan, J., and J. Haines, Contemporary horizontal velocity and strain rate fields of the Pacific-Australian plate boundary zone through New Zealand, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 741-770, 2001.

Beavan, J., D. Silcock, M. Hamburger, E. Ramos, C. Thibault, and R. Feir, Geodetic constraints on postseismic defomation following the 1990 Ms 7.8 Luzon earthquake and implications for Luzon tectonics and Philippine Sea plate motion, G3, 2000GC000100, 2001.

Bennett, R.A., J.L. Davis, and B.P. Wernicke, Present-day pattern of Cordilleran deformation in the western United States, Geology, 27, 371-374, 1999.

Bevis, M., F.W. Taylor, B.E. Schutz, J. Recy, B.L. Isacks, S. Helu, R. Singh, E. Kendrick, J. Stowell, B. Taylor, and S. Calmant, Geodetic observations of very rapid convergence and back-arc extension at the Tonga, Nature, 374, 249-251, 1995.

Bevis, M., E. Kendrick, R. Smalley, T. Herring, J. Godoy, and F. Galban, Crustal motion north and south of the Arica deflection: Comparing recent geodetic results from the central Andes, G3, 1, 1999GC000011, 1999.

Bilham, R., R. Bendick, K. Larson, P. Mohr, J. Braun, S. Tesfaye, and L. Asfaw, Secular and tidal strain across the main Ethiopian Rift, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2789-2792, 1999.

Bock, Y., L. Prawirodirdjo, J.F. Genrich, C.W. Stevens, R. McCaffrey, C. Subarya, S.S.O. Puntodewo, and E. Calais, Crustal motion in Indonesia from Global Positioning System measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 2367, doi:10.1029/2001JB000324, 2003.

Brooks, B.A., M. Bevis, R. Smalley Jr., E. Kendrick, R. Manceda, E. Lauria, R. Maturana, and M. Araujo, Crustal motion in the Southern Andes (26°-36°S): Do the Andes behave like a microplate?, G3, 4, 1085, doi:10.1029/2003GC000505, 2003.

Calais, E., M. Vergnolle, V. San'kov, A. Lukhnev, A. Miroshnitchenko, S. Amarjargal, and J. Déverchère, GPS measurements of crustal deformation in the Baikal-Mongolia area (1994-2002): Implications for current kinematics of Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 2501, doi:10.1029/2002JB002373, 2003.

Calais, E., Y. Mazabraud, B. Mercier de Lépinay, P. Mann, G. Mattioli, and P. Jansma, Strain partitioning and fault slip rates in the northeastern Caribbean from GPS measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 1856, doi:10.1029/2002GL015397, 2002.

Calmant, S., B. Pelletier, P.Lebellegard, M. Bevis, F.W. Taylor, and D.A. Phillips, New insights on the tectonics along the New Hebrides subduction zone based on GPS results, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 2319, doi:10.1029/2001JB000644, 2003.

Chen, Z., B.C. Burchfiel, Y. Liu, R.W. King, L.H. Royden, W. Tang, E. Wang, J. Zhao, and X. Zhang, Global Positioning System measurements from eastern Tibet and their implications for India/Eurasia intercontinental deformation, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 16215-16227, 2000.

Clarke, P.J., R.R. Davies, P.C. England, B. Parsons, H. Biliris, D. Paradissis, G. Veis, P.A. Cross, P.H. Denys, V. Ashkenazi, R. Bingley, H.G. Kahle, M.V. Müller, and P. Briole, Crustal strain in central Greece from repeated GPS measurements in the interval 1989-1997, Geophys. J. Int., 135, 195-214, 2001.

Cocard, M., H.-G. Kahle, Y. Peter, A. Geiger, G. Veis, S. Felekis, D. Paradissis, and H. Billiris, New constraints on the rapid crustal motion of the Aegean region: recent results inferred from GPS measurements (1993-1998) across the West Hellenic Arc, Greece, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 172, 39-47, 1999.

Dietrich, R., R. Dach, C. Engelhardt, J. Ihde, W. Korth, H.-J. Kutterer, K. Lindner, M. Mayer, F. MEnge, H. Miller, C. Müller, W. Niemeier, J. Perlt, M. Pohl, H. Salbach, H.-W. Schenke, T. Schöne, G. Seeber, A. Veit, and C. Völksen, ITRF coordinates and plate velocities from repeated CPS caampaigns in Antarctica -- an analysis based on different individual solutions, J. Geodesy, 74, 756-766, 2001.

Dixon, T.H., F. Farina, C. DeMets, P. Jansma, P. Mann, and E. Calais, Relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates and related boundary zone deformation from a decade of GPS observations, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 15157-15182, 1998.

Dixon, T.H., M. Miller, F. Farina, H. Wang, and D. Johnson, Present-day motion of the Sierra Nevada block and some tectonic implications for the Basin and Range province, North American Cordillera, Tectonics, 19, 1-24, 2000.

Dixon, T.H., F. Farina, C. DeMets, F. Suarez-Vidal, J. Fletcher, B. Marquez-Azua, M. Miller, O. Sanchez, and P. Umhoefer, New kinematic models for Pacific-North America motion from 3 Ma to Present, II: Evidence for a "Baja California shear zone", Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3961-3964, 2000.

Dixon, T., J. Decaix, F. Farina, K. Furlong, R. Malservisi, R. Bennett, F. Suarez-Vidal, J. Fletcher, and J. Lee, Seismic cycle and rheological effects on estimation of present-day slip rates for the Agua Blanca and San Miguel-Vallecitos faults, northern Baja California, Mexico, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 2226, doi:10.1029/2000JB000099, 2002.

Fernandes, R.M.S., L. Bastos, B.A.C. Ambrosius, R. Noomen, S. Matheussen, and P. Baptista, Recent geodetic results in the Azores triple junction region, Pure Appl. Geophys., 161, 683-699, 2004.

Fernandes, R.M.S., B.A.C. Ambrosius, R. Noomen, L. Bastos, L. Combrinck, J.M. Miranda, and W. Spakman, Angular velocities of Nubia and Somalia from continuous GPS data: implications on present-day relative kinematics, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 222, 197-208, 2004.

Fletcher, H.J., and J.T. Freymueller, New constraints on the motion of the Fairweather fault, Alaska, from GPS observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1139, doi:1029/2002GL016476, 2003.

Freymueller, J.T., M.H. Murray, P. Segall, and D. Castillo, Kinematics of the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone, northern California, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 7419-7441, 1999.

Gan, W.J., J.L. Svarc, J.C. Savage, and W.H. Prescott, Strain accumulation across the Eastern California Shear Zone at latitude 36° 30' N, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 16229-16236, 2000.

Gonzalez-Garcia, J.J., L. Prawirodirdjo, Y. Bock, and D. Agnew, Guadelupe Island, Mexico as new constraint for Pacific plate motion, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1872, doi:10.1029/2003GL017732, 2003.

Hollenstain, Ch., H.-G. Kahle, A. Geiger, S. Jenny, S. Goes, and D. Giardini, New GPS constraints on the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary zone in southern Italy, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1935, doi:10.1029/2003GL017554, 2003.

Jansma, P., G.S. Mattioli, A. Lopez, C. DeMets, T.H. Dixon, P. Mann, and E. Calais, Neotectonics of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, northeastern Caribbean, from GPS geodesy, Tectonics, 19, 1021-1037, 2000.

Jouanne, F., J.L. Mugnier, J.F. Gamond, P. Le Fort, M.R. Pandey, L. Bollinger, M. Flouzat, and J.P. Avouac, Current shortening across the Himalayas of Nepal, Geophys. J. Int., 157, 1-14, 2004.

Kahle, H.-G., M.V. Müller, A. Geiger, G. Danuser, S. Mueller, G. Veis, H. Billiris, and D. Paradisis, The strain field in northwestern Greece and the Ionian Islands: results inferred from GPS measurements, Tectonophysics, 249, 41-52, 1995.

Kato, T., Y. Kotake, A. Nakao, J. Beavan, K. Hirahara, M. Okada, M. Hoshiba, O. Kamigaichi, R.B. Feir, P. Ho Park, M.D. Gerasimenko, and M. Kasahara, Initial results from WING, the continuous GPS network in the western Pacific area, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 369-372, 1998.

Kato, T., J. Beavan, T. Matsushima, Y. Kotake, J.T. Camacho, and S. Nakao, Geodetic evidence of back-arc spreading in the Mariana Trough, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1625, doi:10.1029/2002GL016757, 2003.

Klotz, J., G. Khazaradze, D. Angermann, C. Reigber, P. Perdomo, and O. Cifuentes, Earthquake cycle dominates contemporary crustal deformation in Central and Southern Andes, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 193, 437-446, 2001.

Kotzev, V., R. Nakov, B.C. Burchfiel, R. King, and R. Reilinger, GPS study of active tectonics in Bulgaria: results from 1996 to 1998, J. Geodyn., 31, 189-200, 2001.

Lundgren, P., M. Protti, A. Donellan, M. Heflin, E. Hernandez, and D. Jefferson, Seismic cycle and plate margin deformation in Costa Rica: GPS observations from 1994 to 1997, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 28915-28926, 1999.

Mann, P., E. Calais, J.-C. Ruegg, C. DeMets, P.E. Jansma, and G.S. Mattioli, Oblique collision in the northeastern Caribbean from GPS measurements and geological constraints, Tectonics, 21, 1057, doi:10.1029/2001TC001304, 2002.

Márquez-Azúa, B., and C. DeMets, Crustal velocity field of Mexico from continuous GPS measurements, 1993 to June 2001: Implications for the neotectonics of Mexico, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 2450, doi:110.1029/2002JB002241, 2003.

Mazzotti, S., R.D. Hyndman, P. Flück, A.J. Smith, and M. Schmidt, Distribution of the Pacific/North America motion in the Queen Charlotte Islands-S. Alaska plate boundary zone, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1762, doi:10.1029/2003GL017586, 2003.

Mazzotti, S., H. Dragert, J. Henton, M. Schmidt, R. Hyndman, T. James, Y. Lu, and M. Craymer, Current tectonics of northern Cascadia from a decade of GPS measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 2554, doi:10.1029/2003JB002653, 2003.

McCaffrey, R., M.D. Long, C. Goldfinger, P.C. Zwick, J.L. Nabelek, C.K. Johnson, and C. Smith, Rotation and plate locking at the southern Cascadia subduction zone, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3117-3120, 2000.

McClusky, S., S. Balassanian, A. Barka, C. Demir, S. Ergintav, I. Georgiev, O. Gurkan, M. Hamburger, K. Hurst, H.-G. Kahle, K. Kastens, G. Kekelidze, R. King, V. Kotzev, O. Lenk, S. Mahmoud, A. Mishin, M. Nadariya, A. Ouzounis, D. Paradissis, Y. Peter, M. Prilepin, R. Reilinger, I. Sanli, H. Seeger, A. Tealeb, M.N. Toksoz, and G. Veis, Global Positioning System constraints on plate kinematics and dynamics in the eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 5695-5719, 2000.

McClusky, S.C., S.C. Bjornstad, B.H. Hager, R.W. King, B.J. Meade, M.M. Miller, F.C. Monastero, and B.J. Souter, Present day kinematics of the Eastern California shear zone from a geodetically constrained block model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3369-3372, 2001.

Michel, G.W., Y.Q. Yu, S.Y. Zhu, C. Reigber, M. Becker, E. Reinhart, W. Simons, B. Ambrosius, C. Vigny, N. Chamot-Rooke, X. LePichon, P. Morgan, and S. Matheussen, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 187, 239-244, 2001.

Miller, M.M., D.J. Johnson, C.M. Rubin, H. Dragert, K. Wang, A. Qamar, and C. Goldfinger, GPS-determination of along-strike variation in Cascadia margin kinematics: Implications for relative plate motion, subduction zone coupling, and permanent deformation, Tectonics, 20, 161-176, 2001.

Miller, M.M., D.J. Johnson, T.H. Dixon, and R.K. Dokka, Refined kinematics of the Eastern California shear zone, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 2245-2263, 2001.

Norabuena, E., L. Leffler-Griffin, A. Mao, T. Dixon, S. Stein, I.S. Sacks, L. Ocala, and M. Ellis, Space geodetic constraints of Nazca-South America convergence across the central Andes, Science, 279, 358-362, 1998.

Oldow, J.S., C.L.V. Aiken, J.L. Hare, J.F. Ferguson, and R.F. Hardyman, Active displacement transfer and differential block motion within the central Walker Lane, western Great Basin, Geology, 29, 19-22, 2001.

Paul, J., R. Burgmann, V.K. Gaur, R. Bilham, K.M. Larson, M.B. Amanda, S. Jade, M. Mukal, T.S. Anupama, G. Satyal, and D. Kumar, The motion and active deformation of India, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 647-650, 2001.

Pérez, O.J., R. Bilham, R. Bendick, J.R. Velandia, N. Hernández, C. Moncayo, M. Hoyer, and M. Kozuch, Velocity field accross the southern Caribbean plate boundary and estimates of Caribbean/South-American plate motion using GPS geodesy 1994-2000, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2987-2990, 2001.

Ruegg, J.C., J. Campos, R. Madariaga, E. Kausel, J.B. de Chabalier, R. Armijo, D. Dimitrov, I. Georgiev, and S. Barrientos, Interseismic strain accumulation in south central Chile from GPS measurements, 1996-1999, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, doi:10.1029/2001GL013438, 2002.

Sagiya, T., S. Miyazaki, and T. Tada, Continuous GPS Array and present-day crustal deformation of Japan, Pure Appl. Geophys., 157, 2302-2322, 2000.

Sauber, J., S. McClusky, and R. King, Relation of ongoing deformation rates to the subduction zone process in southern Alaska, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 2853-2856, 1997.

Savage, J.C., J.L. Svarc, and W.H. Prescott, Deformation across the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone near Kodiak, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2117-2120, 1999.

Savage, J.C., W. Gan, W.H. Prescott, and J.L. Svarc, Strain accumulation across the Coast Ranges at the latitude of San Francisco, J. Geophys. Res., 109, 3413, doi:10.1029/2003JB002612, 2004.

Sella, G.F., T.H. Dixon, and A. Mao, REVEL: A model for Recent plate velocities, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 2081, doi:10.1029/2000JB000033, 2002.

Serpellonii, E., M. Anzidei, P. Baldi, G. Casula, A. Galvani, A. Pesci, and F. Riguzzi, Geodetic deformations in the Central-Southern Apennines (Italy) from repeated GPS surveys, Ann. Geof., 44, 627-647, 2001.

Shen, Z-K, C. Zhao, A. Yin, Y. Li, D.D. Jackson, P. Fang, and D. Dong, Contemporary crustal deformation in east Asia constrained by Global Positioning System measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 5721-5734, 2000.

Shen, Z-K, M. Wang, Y. Li, D.D. Jackson, A. Yin, D. Dong, and P. Fang, Crustal deformation along the Altyn Tagh Fault system, western China, from GPS, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 30607-30621, 2001.

Smalley Jr., R., E. Kendrick, M.G. Bevis, I.W.D. Dalziel, F. Taylor, E. Lauria, R. Barriga, G. Casassa, E. Olivero, and E. Piana, Geodetic determination of relative plate motion and crustal deformation across the Scotia-South America plate boundary in eastern Tierra del Fuego, G3, 4, 1070, doi:10.1029/2002GC000446, 2003.

Smith, R.B., GPS Wasatch/Yellowstone, UNAVCO GPS Site Motion Vector/Crustal Velocity Archive.

Stevens, C., R. McCaffrey, Y. Bock, J. Genrich, Endang, C. Subarya, S.S.O. Puntodewo, Fauzi, and C. Vigny, Rapid rotations about a vertical axis in a collisional setting revealed by the Palu fault, Sulawesi, Indonesia, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2677-2680, 1999.

Stevens, C., R. McCaffrey, Y. Bock, J. Genrich, M. Pubellier, and C. Subarya, Evidence for block rotations and basal shear in the world's fastest slipping continental shear zone in NW New Guinea, in Plate Boundary Zones, eds. S. Stein and J.T. Freymueller, AGU Geodyn. Ser., 30, 87-99, 2002.

Steblov, G.M., M.G. Kogan, R.W. King, C.H. Cholz, R. B\374rgmann, and D.I. Frolov, Imprint of the North American plate in Siberia revealed by GPS, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1924, doi:10.1029/2003GL017805, 2003.

Svarc, J.L., J.C. Savage, W.H. Prescott, and M.H. Murray, Strain accumulation and rotation in western Oregon and southwestern Washington, J. Geophys. Res., 107, doi:10.1029/2001/JB000625, 2002.

Svarc, J.L., J.C. Savage, and W.H. Prescott, Strain accumulation and rotation in western Nevada, 1993-2000, J. Geophys. Res., 107, doi:10.1029/2001JB000579, 2002.

Tatar, M., D. Hatzfeld, J. Martinod, A. Walpersdorf, M. Ghafori-Ashtiany, and J. Chéry, The present-day deformation of the central Zagros from GPS measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1927, doi:10.1029/2002GL015427, 2002.

Thatcher, W., G.R. Foulger, B.R. Julian, J. Svarc, E. Quilty, and G.W. Bawden, Present-day deformation across the Basin and Range Province, Western United States, Science, 283, 1714-1718, 1999.

Tregoning, P., K. Lambeck, A. Stolz, P. Morgan, S.C. McClusky, P. van der Beek, H. McQueen, R.J. Jackson, R.P. Little, A. Laing, and B. Murphy, Estimation of current plate motions in Papua New Guinea from Global Positioning System observations, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 12181-12203, 1998.

Tregoning, P., F. Tan, J. Gilliland, H. McQueen, and K. Lambeck, Present-day crustal motion in the Solomon Islands from GPS observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3627-3630, 1998.

Tregoning, P., R.J. Jackson, H. McQueen, K. Lambeck, C. Stevens, R.P. Little, R. Curley, and R. Rosa, Motion of the South Bismarck plate, Papua New Guinea, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3517-3520, 1999.

Trenkamp, R., J.N. Kellogg, J.T. Freymueller, and H.P. Mora, Wide plate margin deformation, southern Central America and northwestern South America, CASA GPS observations 1991-1996, J. South Am. Earth Sci., 15, 157-171, 2002.

Vigny, C., A. Socquet, C. Rangin, N. Chamot-Rooke, M. Pubellier, M.-N., Bouin, G. Bertrand, and M. Becker, Present-day crustal deformation around the Sagaing fault, Myanmar, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 2533, doi:10.1029/2002JB001999, 2003.

Vernant, Ph., F. Nilforoushan, D. Hatzfeld, M.R. Abbasi, C. Vigny, F. Masson, H. Nankali, J. Martinod, A. Ashtiani, R. Bayer, F. Tavakoli, and J. Chéry, Contemporary crustal deformation and plate kinematics in Middle East constrained by GPS measurements in Iran and northern Oman, Geophys. J. Int., 157, 381-398, 2004.

Wang, Q., P.-Z. Zhang, J.T. Freymueller, R. Bilham, K.M. Larson, X. Lai, X. You, Z. Niu, J. Wu, Y. Li, J. Liu, Z. Yang, and Q. Chen, Present-day crustal deformation in China constrained by Global Positioning System measurements, Science, 294, 574-577, 2001.

Weber, J.C., T.H. Dixon, C. DeMets, W.B., Ambeh, P. Jansma, G. Mattioli, J. Saleh, G. Sella, R. Bilham, and O. Pérez, GPS estimate of relative motion between the Caribbean and south American plates, and geologic implications for Trinidad and Venezuela, Geology, 29, 75-78, 2001.

Yu, S.-B., L.-C. Kuo, R.S. Punongbayan, and E.G. Ramos, GPS observation of crustal deformation in the Taiwan-Luzon region, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 923-926, 1999.

Wdowinski, S., Y. Bock, G. Baer, L. Prawirodirdjo, N. Bechor, S. Naaman, R. Lnafo, Y. Forrai, and Y. Melzer, GPS measurements of current crustal movements along the Dead Sea Fault, J. Geophys. Res., 109, doi:10.1029/2003JB002640, 2004.

GPSVEL version 1.0

SCEC version3

USGS velocities

Geodetic References: Previously Used or Considered

Anzidei, M., P. Baldi, G. Casula, A. Galvani, E. Mantovani, A. Pesci, F. Riguzzi, and E. Serpelloni, Insights into present-day crustal motion in the central Mediterranean area from GPS surveys, Geophys. J. Int., 146, 98-110, 2001.

Bendick, R., Bilham R., Freymueller J.T., Larson K.M., and G.H. Yin, Geodetic evidence for a low slip rate in the Altyn Tagh fault system, Nature, 404, 69-72, 2000.

Calais, E., O. Lesne, J. Déverchère, V. San'kov, A. Lukhnev, A. Miroshnitchenko, V. Buddo, K. Levi, V. Zalutzky, and Y. Bashkuev, Crustal deformation in the Baikal rift from GPS measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 4003-4006, 1998.

Crétaux, J.-F., L. Soudarin, A. Cazenave, and F. Bouillé, Present-day tectonic plate motions and crustal deformations from the DORIS space system, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 30167-30181, 1998.

Freymueller, J.T., J.N. Kellogg, and V. Vega, Plate motions in the north Andean region, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 21853-21863, 1993.

Heflin, M.B.,

Heki, K., Miyazaki, S., H. Takahashi, M. Kasahara, F. Kimata, S. Miura, N.F. Vasilenko, A. Ivashchenko, and G. An, The Amurian plate motion and current plate kinematics in eastern Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 29147-29155, 1999.

Kendrick, E.C., M. Bevis, F.F. Smalley Jr., O. Cifuentes, and F. Galban, Current rates of convergence across the Central Andes: Estimates from continuous GPS observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 541-544, 1999.

Khazaradze, G., A. Qamar, and H. Dragert, Tectonic deformation in western Washington from continuous GPS measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3153-3156, 1999.

King, R.W., F. Shen, B.C. Burchfiel, L.H. Royden, E. Wang, Z. Chen, Y. Liu, X.-Y Zhang, J.-X. Zhao, and Y. Li, Geodetic measurements of crustal motion in southwest China, Geology, 25, 179-182, 1997.

Kogan, M.G., G.M. Steblov, R.W. King, T.A. Herring, D.I. Frolov, S.G. Egorov, V.Ye. Levin, A. Lerner-Lam, and A. Jones, Geodetic constraints on the rigidity and relative motion of Eurasia and North America, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2041-2044, 2000.

Larson, K.M., R. Burgmann, R. Bilham, and J.T. Freymueller, Kinematics of the India-Eurasia collision zone from GPS measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 1077-1093, 1999.

Ma, C., and J.W. Ryan, NASA Space Geodesy Program - GSFC DATA Analysis-1998, VLBI Geodetic Results 1979-1998, August, 1998.

Prescott, W.H., J.C. Savage, J.L. Svarc, and D. Manaker, Deformation across the Pacific-North America plate boundary near San Francisco, California, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 6673-6682, 2001.

Puntodewo, S.S.O., R. McCaffrey, E. Calais, Y. Bock, J. Rais, C. Subarya, R. Poewariardi, C. Stevens, J. Genrich, Fauzi, P. Zwick, and S. Wdowinski, GPS measurements of crustal deformation within the Pacific-Australia plate boundary zone in Irian Jaya, Indonesia, Tectonophysics, 237, 141-153, 1994.

Reilinger, R.E., S.C. McClusky, B.J. Souter, M.W. Hamburger, M.T. Prilepin, A. Mishin, T. Guseva, and S. Balassanian, Preliminary estimates of plate convergence in the Caucasus collision zone from Global Positioning System measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 1815-1818, 1997.

Reilinger, R.E., S.C. McClusky, M.B. Oral, R.W. King, M.N. Toksoz, A.A. Barka, I. Kinik, O. Lenk, and I. Sanli, Global Positioning System measurements of present-day crustal movements in the Arabia-Africa-Eurasia plate collision zone, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 9983-9999, 1997.

Simons, W.M.F., B.A.C. Ambrosius, R. Noomen, D. Angermann, P. Wilson, M. Becker, E. Reinhart, A. Walpersdorf, and C. Vigny, Observing plate motions in SE Asia: Geodetic results of the GEODYSSEA project, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2081-2084, 1999.

Smith, D.E., R. Kolenkiewicz, R.S. Nerem, P.J. Dunn, M.H. Torrence, J.W. Robbins, S.M. Klosko, R.G. Williamson and E.C. Pavlis, Contemporary global horizontal crustal motion, Geophys. J. Int., 119, 511-520, 1994.

Straub, C., H.-G. Kahle, and C. Schindler, GPS and geologic estimates of the tectonic activity in the Marmara Sea region, NW Anatolia, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 27587-27601, 1997.

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Walpersdorf, A., C. Vigny, J.-C. Ruegg, P. Huchon, L.M. Asfaw, and S.A. Kirbash, 5 years of geodynamics of the Afar triple junction area, J. Geodyn., 28, 225-236, 1999.

Zhu, W., X. Wang, Z. Cheng, Y. Xiong, Q. Zhang, S. Ye, Z. Ma, J. Chen, H. Hsu, Z. Wei, X. Lai, J. Liu, B. Jin, J. Ren, and J. Wang, Crustal motion of chinese mainland monitored by GPS, Science in China, 42, 2000.

Geologic References

England, P.C., and P. Molnar, The field of crustal velocity in Asia calculated from Quaternary rates of slip on faults, Geophys J. Int., 130, 551-582, 1997.

Holt, W.E., N. Chamot-Rooke, X. LePichon, A.J. Haines, B. Shen-Tu, and J. Ren, The velocity field in Asia inferred from Quaternary fault slip rates and GPS observations, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 19185-19210, 2000.

Seismic References

Dziewonski, A.M., T.-A. Chou, and J.H. Woodhouse, Determination of earthquake source parameters from waveform data for studies of global and regional seismicity, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 2825-2852, 1981.

Dziewonski, A.M., G. Ekström, and N.N. Maternovskaya, Centroid-moment tensor solutions for July-September, 1999, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 119, 311-319, 2000.

Harvard Seismology: CMT Catalog Search

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